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Located in eastern Africa and south of the equator, Tanzania comprises Tanganyika on the African mainland and the islands of Zanzibar with a total area of over 945,000 square kilometers.

Tanzania enjoys abundant mineral resources, such as diamonds, gold, coal, iron, phosphates, didymium rare earths, natural gas and helium; except for gold, most minerals have yet to be fully developed. Tanzania has approximately one third of land area set aside in protected areas such as national parks, game and forest reserves. The country is rich in tourism resources, including the world-known Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in African and three African Great Lakes, namely, Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Nyasa (Malawi Lake), which are all on its border. The eastern coastal areas and some inland lowlands have a tropical savanna climate, and the western inland plateau has a tropical mountain climate with a low annual range of temperature. Besides, more than 20 islands in Zanzibar have a tropical marine climate and are humid and hot all year round. The country has a relatively low rainfall with the annual precipitation in 80% areas of the country less than 1000 mm.

Tanzania is divided into 31 regions, with 26 on the mainland and 5 in Zanzibar. Its former capital Dar es Salaam, which means “the house of peace" in Swahili, is the largest city and port and an important political, economic and cultural center in Tanzania.

Tanzania had a population of around 53.95 million in 2017. Its national language is Swahili, which is also an official language together with English for official documents, administration, business, higher education, and etc. Arabic is also widely used in Zanzibar.