Arab Republic of Egypt, historically known as a cradle of civilization, has an important role in geopolitics for it lies at the junction of three continents of Asia, Europe and Africa and is traversed by the Suez Canal. Egypt covers a total area of 1,001,450 square kilometers, 94% of which is desert, with more than 2,900 km of coastline. The 6,700-km Nile runs through Egypt from south to north for 1,530 km. The whole of Egypt is dry and most of the region has a tropical desert climate, with the exception of the Nile Delta and the northern coastal region, which have a subtropical Mediterranean climate.
In 2018, the population of Egypt was 96.3 million, and about 96% inhabit densely in the Nile Valley and the Delta. Ethnic Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting 99% of the total population; ethnic minorities include Nubians, Greeks, Armenians, Italians and French descendants, accounting for 1%. The official language and lingua franca of the Republic is Arabic; in addition, people in the upper-class can communicate fluently in English or French. Egypt is divided into 27 governorates and 8 economic zones. Cairo, the capital of Egypt, is the political, economic and cultural center with a population of more than 20 million. As the largest city in Africa and the Arab countries, it is also the headquarters of the League of Arab States and an important center for international conferences. Alexandria, the second largest city in Egypt and Africa, is the largest port in Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean, as well as one of Egypt's transportation and industrial centers.
In 2017, for the first time, China became the a top ten FDI country of Egypt and top source countries for tourists to Egypt. Contracts won by Chinese enterprises include the CBD construction in the new administrative capital and the light rail project linking the 10th of Ramadan City and New Cairo with the New Administrative Capital, marking a new chapter of economic and trade relations between two countries.